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Hundreds of Studies Indicating Health Damage from Fluoride Exposure

Updated: Dec 11, 2022


A compilation of known health effects and associated studies can be found at FluorideAlert.org

Fluoride exposure has been linked to health damage and to the exacerbation of underlying health conditions including: arthritis and joint pain, kidney dysfunction, thyroid dysfunction, endocrine disruption, cardiovascular damage, softening and de-mineralizing of the bones (osteomalacia), increase in bone fractures, skeletal and dental fluorosis, neurotoxicity and cognitive effects, lowered IQ in children, gastrointestinal disorders, calcification of the pineal gland, diabetes and blood glucose regulation problems, cancer, oxidative stress, and male reproductive damage, among others.


It's important to note that there is no conclusive evidence of the universal safety of water fluoridation.


Fluoride accumulates in the body over time. This means that even tiny doses can accumulate and cause health damage over time, especially if people are exposed daily via fluoridated water. People with kidney or liver dysfunction or other detoxification problems are at an increased risk for toxic fluoride accumulation in the body.

People at greater risk of health damage from water fluoridation include:


- fetuses and babies

- children

- people with arthritis, joint problems, or skeletal or dental fluorosis

- people with thyroid dysfunction

- people with chemical sensitivities

- people who have been injured by fluorine-infused pharmaceuticals or have a family history of these types of injuries

- people with ADHD, autism, or other cognitive issues linked to chemical toxicity

- people with cognitive decline

- people with diabetes or blood sugar regulation problems

- people with sensitive kidneys or kidney dysfunction

- people with hindered detoxification

- people with a personal or family history of cardiovascular damage or disease

- people with a personal or family history of cancer

This is a sampling of studies and links showing health damage from fluoride exposure:

OVERVIEW OF TOXICITY

Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA's standards (2006)

Link: https://nap.nationalacademies.org/read/11571/chapter/1

NEUROTOXICITY, COGNITIVE EFFECTS, AND LOWERED IQ SCORES IN CHILDREN

Over 200 animal studies showing that prolonged exposure to varying levels of fluoride can damage the brain, particularly when coupled with an iodine deficiency or aluminum excess

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/?effect=brain-2&sub=cellulartissue-damage&type=animals&start_year=&end_year=&fulltext=&fantranslation=

74 human studies linking fluoride exposure with reduced intelligence

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/brain01/

Over 60 animal studies reporting that mice or rats ingesting fluoride have an impaired capacity to learn and/or remember

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/brain02_/


Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915186/


Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity (autism, ADHD, dyslexia, cognitive impairment)

Link: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(13)70278-3/fulltext

Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491930/

Fluoride exposure from infant formula and child IQ in a Canadian birth cohort

Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019326145?via%3Dihub


Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico

Link: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/ehp655


Association Between Maternal Fluoride Exposure During Pregnancy and IQ Scores in Offspring in Canada

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704756/


Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7760776/


Fluoride-Induced Expression of Neuroinflammatory Markers and Neurophysiological Regulation in the Brain of Wistar Rat Model

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32865723/


"Excess fluoride intake has been linked with various pathological conditions. The objective of the present study was to understand the role of fluoride in neurotoxic, neuroinflammatory, and neurodegenerative changes in the brain tissue of Wistar rats."


Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9761592/

ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)


Association of water fluoride and urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth

Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019315971

Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association

Link: https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-015-0003-1


Prenatal fluoride exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children at 6–12 years of age in Mexico City

Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412018311814?via%253Dihub

ARTHRITIS, SKELETAL AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS, AND BONE DAMAGE

Arthritis

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/issues/health/arthritis/


Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review on the Status and Stress Effects

Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233357494_Fluoride_in_Drinking_Water_A_Review_on_the_Status_and_Stress_Effects


Associations of low level of fluoride exposure with dental fluorosis among U.S. children and adolescents, NHANES 2015-2016

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34166938/


Skeletal fluorosis from brewed tea

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21593111/


What Is Your Guess? A Case of Thick but Brittle Bones and Instant Tea

Link: https://academic.oup.com/clinchem/article/56/6/1041/5622483


Fluoride-related bone disease associated with habitual tea consumption

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17550752/

Report of Investigations on Adult Hand Osteoarthritis in Fengjiabao Village, Asuo Village, and Qiancheng Village

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/bao-2003/


Fluoride in Drinking Water, Diet, and Urine in Relation to Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women Link: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/EHP7404


"Conclusion The risk of hip fractures was increased among Swedish women who had the highest levels of urine fluoride excretion and the highest estimated fluoride intake from beverages and food relative to women with the lowest levels of each exposure. Our findings, which are consistent with the effects of high fluoride exposures observed in RCTs (resulting in a denser but more fragile skeleton), suggest that long-term consumption of tap water with a fluoride concentration of 1mg/L, which is below the 1.5mg/L maximum concentration recommended by the WHO, may adversely affect bone health in postmenopausal women."

REPRODUCTIVE DAMAGE AND INFERTILITY


60+ animal studies linking fluoride exposure to male reproductive damage

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/fertility02/

In vitro influence of sodium fluoride on ram semen quality and enzyme activities

Link: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/In-vitro-influence-of-sodium-fluoride-on-ram-semen-Zakrzewska-Uda%C5%82a/5ec7865f43a1e500e8a798d80b7633f32e9b9be2


Toxic effects of fluoride on reproductive ability in male rats: sperm motility, oxidative stress, cell cycle, and testicular apoptosis.

Link: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Toxic-effects-of-fluoride-on-reproductive-ability-Junling-Yingmei/568e3e54d6d332107090bfafa1eb7dad95056f26


Assessment of fluoride levels during pregnancy and its association with early adverse pregnancy outcomes

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32984109/


"Conclusions: Excess fluoride exposures can have deleterious effects on the expecting mother and fetus and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes."


Association between Water Fluoride Levels and Low Birth Weight: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2016

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35897326/


KIDNEY DISEASE AND DYSFUNCTION


Kidney disease

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/issues/health/kidney/

Fluoride as a cause of kidney disease in humans

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/kidney07/


Kidney damage in fluoride-exposed animals

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/kidney08/


Role of renal function in the association of drinking water fluoride and plasma fluoride among adolescents in the United States: NHANES, 2013-2016

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35688217/


"Conclusions: Water fluoridation results in higher plasma fluoride levels in those with lower renal function. How routine water fluoridation may affect the many millions of Americans with Chronic Kidney Disease, who are particularly susceptible to heavy metal and mineral accumulation, needs to be further investigated."


Back pain in chronic renal failure

Link: https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article/21/8/2331/1820840


"Main sources of fluoride include food and water. About 50–70% of fluoride is excreted by the kidneys [1]. Individuals with kidney disease have decreased ability to excrete fluoride in urine and are at risk of developing fluorosis even at normal recommended limit of 0.7 to 1.2 mg/l (37–63 µmol/l) of fluoride in drinking water [2]."


Serum and urine fluoride concentration: relationships to age, sex and renal function in a non-fluoridated population

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9800387/


Fluoridation of drinking water and chronic kidney disease: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence

Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5930763_Fluoridation_of_drinking_water_and_chronic_kidney_disease_Absence_of_evidence_is_not_evidence_of_absence



CARDIOVASCULAR DAMAGE


Cardiovascular disease

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/issues/health/cardio/

Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure? An environmental study

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21484404/


Association of vascular fluoride uptake with vascular calcification and coronary artery disease

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21946616/


Inflammatory responses induced by fluoride and arsenic at toxic concentration in rabbit aorta

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22422340/


Effects of fluorosis on QT dispersion, heart rate variability and echocardiographic parameters in children

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21342861/


Effects of sodium fluoride on the electrocardiogram of male rabbits

Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235906983_Effects_of_sodium_fluoride_on_the_electrocardiogram_of_male_rabbits


Alterations in Electrocardiographic Parameters after Subacute Exposure of Fluoride and Ameliorative Action of Aluminium Sulphate in Goats

Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26715181_Alterations_in_Electrocardiographic_Parameters_after_Subacute_Exposure_of_Fluoride_and_Ameliorative_Action_of_Aluminium_Sulphate_in_Goats

Effects of chronic fluorosis on electrocardiogram in sheep

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12746571/


Histopathology of myocardial damage in experimental fluorosis in rabbits

Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228361564_Histopathology_of_myocardial_damage_in_experimental_fluorosis_in_rabbits


Chronic fluoride toxicity and myocardial damage: antioxidant offered protection in second generation rats

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21976813/


Association between fluoride exposure and blood pressure in children and adolescents aged 6 to19 years in the United States: NHANES, 2013-2016

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35168424/



INFLAMMATION


Fluoride exposure and blood cell markers of inflammation in children and adolescents in the United States: NHANES, 2013–2016

Link: https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-022-00911-6


"Conclusion: Our finding that neutrophils and monocytes are associated with higher plasma fluoride in U.S. children and adolescents is consistent with animal data showing fluoride related effects of increased inflammation. These findings suggest the importance of further studies to assess potential mechanisms that are involved in absorption and filtration of ingested fluoride, particularly in tissues and organs such as the small intestine, liver and kidney."


DIABETES AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE REGULATION

Fluoride and impaired glucose tolerance

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/diabetes01/


Inhibitory effect of fluoride on insulin receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1132568/


Reversible impairment of glucose tolerance in patients with endemic fluorosis. Fluoride Collaborative Study Group

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8405753/


Topical fluorides: effects on physiologic and biochemical processes

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3475325/


Does Fluoridation Affect Diabetes Risk?

Link: https://www.dentalnewspk.com/08-Nov-2022/does-fluoridation-affect-diabetes-risk


"Fluoride has been found to raise blood sugar levels and reduce glucose tolerance, perhaps by preventing insulin generation or secretion. A dose of fluoride that can be attained in locations with "optimally" fluoridated water has been proven to cause impaired glucose tolerance in humans, which is frequently a precursor to type 2 diabetes. This intake ranges from 0.07 to 0.4 mg/kg/day. Therefore, current fluoride intake may cause or aggravate some types of diabetes."

THYROID DYSFUNCTION


Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water

Link: https://jech.bmj.com/content/69/7/619?sid=387994a1-4d28-493a-bef6-8fdf845ecbb0

Thyroid function, intelligence, and low-moderate fluoride exposure among Chinese school-age children

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31698198/


Modifying effect of COMT gene polymorphism and a predictive role for proteomics analysis in children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area in Tianjin, China

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25556215/


Effects of high iodine and high fluorine on children's intelligence and the metabolism of iodine and fluorine

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7859263/


Fluoride exposure and thyroid function among adults living in Canada: Effect modification by iodine status

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30316182/



LIVER DAMAGE


Multiomics Analysis Revealed the Molecular Mechanism of miRNAs in Fluoride-Induced Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

Link: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c03049

"Fluoride-induced liver injury seriously endangers human and animal health and animal food safety, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to explore the mechanism of miRNAs in fluoride-induced hepatic glycolipid metabolism disorders."


GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AND DISTRESS

Fluoride-induced gastric symptoms in human clinical trials

Link: https://fluoridealert.org/studies/gastric01/


Estrogen deficiency aggravates fluoride-induced small intestinal mucosa damage and junctional complexes proteins expression disorder in rats Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651322010211

"In particular, estrogen deficiency exacerbated F-induced enterotoxicity, which provides new explanations for the development and severity of intestinal disease in postmenopausal women with high-F areas."



PLANT AND SOIL DAMAGE


Effects of soil fluoride pollution on wheat growth and biomass production, leaf injury index, powdery mildew infestation and trace metal uptake

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35007676/


Higher fluoride levels in soil were associated with reduced plant height and number of leaves, particularly in early growth phases. There was also increased leaf injury, resulting in increased infestations of powdery mildew.



INCREASED LEAD LEVELS IN WATER


Effects of fluoridation and disinfection agent combinations on lead leaching from leaded-brass parts


Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0161813X07001404


"This study concerns effects on water-borne lead from combinations of chlorine (CL) or chloramines (CA) with fluosilicic acid (FSA) or sodium fluoride (NaF). CL is known to corrode brass, releasing lead from plumbing devices...Over the first test week (after CL flushing concentrations were increased from 1.0 to 2.0 ppm) lead concentrations nearly doubled (from about 100 to nearly 200 ppb), but when FSA was also included, lead concentrations spiked to over 900 ppb. Lead concentrations from the CL-based waters appeared to be decreasing over the study period, while for the CA + NH3 + FSA combination, lead concentrations seemed to be increasing with time."

Elevated lead levels have been reported in children who drink fluoridated water. These findings have been repeated in studies on rats:

Fluoride increases lead concentrations in whole blood and in calcified tissues from lead-exposed rats

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20188782/ "Higher blood lead (BPb) levels have been reported in children living in communities that receive fluoride-treated water. Here, we examined whether fluoride co-administered with lead increases BPb and lead concentrations in calcified tissues in Wistar rats exposed to this metal from the beginning of gestation...These findings show that fluoride consistently increases BPb and calcified tissues Pb concentrations in animals exposed to low levels of lead and suggest that a biological effect not yet recognized may underlie the epidemiological association between increased BPb lead levels in children living in water-fluoridated communities."


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